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(Download this page in PDF here.)(Cliông chồng here for information about participle adjectives.)

We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative sầu clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes Điện thoại tư vấn this a "reduced relative sầu clause".

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1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active sầu relative clause:The man driving the car is a friend of mine.(= The man who is driving the car is a friend of mine).

The present participle can replace any active tense, not just the present continuous tense:Lorries coming over the bridge have sầu to lớn be careful of the wind.(= Lorries that come over the bridge have lớn be careful of the wind).Who was the girl wearing the red dress?(= Who was the girl who was wearing the red dress?).Students handing in their essays late will thảm bại ten marks.(= Students who hand in their essays late will thất bại ten marks).

2: A past participle can be used in the same way as a simple passive relative clause:We read the tin nhắn sent by the manager.(= We read the tin nhắn that had been sent by the manager).This vase, made in Trung Quốc in the 14th century, is very valuable.(= This vase, which was made in Trung Quốc in the 14th century, is very valuable).She only eats cakes made by her mother.(= She only eats cakes that are made by her mother).

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3: "Being + past participle" can be used in the same way as a continuous passive relative sầu clause:The poem being read by the actor was written by my brother.(= The poem that is being read by the actor was written by my brother).The strawberries being eaten at the wedding were grown in Scotl&.(= The strawberries that are being eaten at the wedding…).

Things to notice:

1: We generally don"t use perfect participles ("having + past participle") in this case.

2: We can"t use this kind of participle clause if we"re talking about one finished action which is not repeated:Not: Who was the girl dropping the coffee?Instead, we use a normal relative clause:Who was the girl who dropped the coffee?

Try an exercise!Participle Clauses Exercise 1Participle Clauses Exercise 2Need more practice? Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses.

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